The MONTH function is a simple date function that extracts the month from a given time. If you work with times but only care about the months, the MONTH function lets you eliminate everything else.
Remember that dates are just saved as numbers by your spreadsheet with date formatting applied.
The MONTH function returns the month’s value from any given unit of time.
#VALUE! – An invalid date was passed to the function such as
"1/32/2022". The month of January does not have 32 days.
#ERROR! – Formula parse error. The input to the function could not be used such as a date with too many slashes. –
#NUM! – Result was not a number. The number is too large to resolve to a date. –
The output is an unexpected format such as 12:00 AM. – This means the formatting is incorrect, not the underlying number. Change the formatting to Number.
Example 1 – Plain and Simple
First, here are a few simple examples of the MONTH function.
|Extract the month value from 10/5/2016.||10|
|Return the month of October.||#VALUE!|
|Extract the month value from October 8||10|
Tip: Notice that the MONTH function can’t figure out what you mean by “October” unless you put a day value in front of it. See how dates and times work to make a little sense out of this.
Example 2 – Separating the Values of a Date and Time
Different date values examined using various functions.
|Time value||Tickmark||YEAR||MONTH||DAY||HOUR||MINUTE||SECOND||Formatted as number|
|6/1/2017 2:32 PM||3||2017||6||1||14||32||0||42,887.61|
|July 31, 2016||4||2016||7||31||0||0||0||42,582.00|
- 1 A random date typed in using slashes.
- 2 A random date typed in using dashes. Note that it is processed the same way as the date with slashes.
- 3 Typed a random date in and added a time. Now the function extracts the hours and minutes.
- 4 Typed in a date but spelled out. Writing out the date also works, but it won’t work if you write the day as “31st” instead of 31.
- 5 If you only type in a time, the “zero” date is 12/30/1899.
- 6 Entered with the NOW function. The output will constantly change in the linked Google Sheet.
- 7 Entered with the TODAY function. The output will change daily in the linked Google Sheet.
- 8 A blank cell is December 30, 1899. Similar to tickmark 5.
- 9 Typing a 1 will increment the value in number 10 above by 1 day. In other words, “1=12/31/1899”. It is just a matter of how it is displayed, which can be controlled by going to the Format menu and choosing Number.
- 10 Just a decimal with no whole number increments the value by hours, minutes, and seconds instead of days.
- 11 To get near the current date, you need to start with 43,000 days away from 12/30/1899.
Live Examples in Sheets
Go to this spreadsheet for examples of the YEAR, MONTH, DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, and SECOND functions shown above that you can study and use anywhere you would like.