Types of Date and Time Functions in Google Sheets

There are many types of date and time functions available in Google Sheets. This page groups them into broad categories to understand their purpose. Let’s start by looking at the functions that return helpful information about dates or times.

Dates and Time Helper Functions

These functions help us use dates or times by returning information from dates or times without changing them.

Help text for the DATE function
Example of a Time Helper Function


The DATE function accepts values for the year, month, and day and returns them as one date. You can use this function to input date values into other formulas.


The DATEVALUE function accepts a date and returns its serial number. The serial number results from the sequential day numbering system that starts with December 30, 1899, as day 0.


The TIME function accepts values for the hour, minute, and second, then returns them as one time. You can use this function to feed time values into other formulas.


Google Sheets treats time as a fraction of one day. For example, noon is .5. The TIMEVALUE function will show a time as a decimal representing a portion of a day.

Duration Functions

The duration functions calculate the difference between two date values.

Function help for DATEDIF
Example of a Duration Function


The DATEDIF function finds the number of days, months, or years between two dates.


The DAYS360 function is both a finance function and a date function. It returns the number of days between two days using the 360-day counting convention. Some banks use this convention to calculate interest. See this video for an example of the 360-day method.


The DAYS function calculates the difference between two dates. Using DAYS is the same as subtracting one date from another.


You can use the NETWORKSDAYS or NETWORKDAYS.INTL functions to calculate the workdays between two dates. The INTL variation allows different weekends than the traditional Saturday and Sunday.


Google Sheets does not have a built-in function to calculate the duration between two times on different days. The reason is that Google Sheets treats dates and times as numbers, and subtracting two numbers that represent time different days will result in a decimal value that is not a valid duration. To find the duration between two times on different days, you need to use a formula that combines the DATE, TIME and DATEDIF functions. As an easier alternative, you can install and use the TIMEDIF add-on which will find the duration for you.


If you want to find what fraction of a year has elapsed between two dates, the YEARFRAC function will do this calculation for you.

Functions That Return Parts of Dates and Times

This group of functions extracts parts of information from dates or times.

DAY function help text
Extracting Part of a Date


Returns a day’s DAY value as a number 1 through 31.


Returns a day’s MONTH value as a number 1 through 12.


Returns a day’s iso week number value as a number.


Returns the day of the week number.


Returns a day’s week number value as a number.


Returns a day’s YEAR value as a number.


Returns a time’s HOUR value as a number.


Returns a time’s MINUTE value as a number.


Returns a time’s SECOND value as a number.

Functions That Return Different Dates

The EDATE function and it's help text
A Function that Modifies a Date


The EDATE function returns a date n number of days away from a specified date.


The EOMONTH function returns the end date of a month a specified number of months away from a date.


You can use the WORKDAY or WORKDAY.INTL functions to find the a day a specified number of workdays away. The international version accepts different days for weekends.

Current Date and Time

Help text for the NOW function
Returning the Current Date and Time


The NOW function returns the current date and time. This value recalculates every time you open the spreadsheet.


The TODAY function returns the current date. This value will recalculate every time you open the spreadsheet.


Now you have seen the different types of date functions. Learn more about how to use them.

Videos Covering all Date and Time Functions

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